שביבי אש
לסדר וישלח

עִם לָבָן גַּרְתִּי וָאֵחַר עַד עָתָּה

I have sojourned with Laban, and stayed until now (Genesis 32:5)

Rashi comments on this passage: "I have fulfilled the 613 (תרי"ג) commandments." And many have asked, but Jacob did not fulfill the commandment of honoring his father and mother, and was, in fact, punished for not doing so. And if so, he did not reach the total of 613.

And our master says that, by saying "and I stayed until now" (וָאֵחַר עַד עָתָּה), Jacob actually meant to exclude the commandment of honoring his father and mother from the total of 613, for what he meant to say was "I fulfilled the 613 commandments except for my having stayed until now by which I negated the commandment of honoring father and mother." But his further mention of having oxen (וַיְהִי לִי שׁוֹר), which is also a reference to the incident with Joseph who is called an ox, and to having asses (חֲמוֹר), which is also a reference to Shehem the son of Hamor, who tormented Dinah indicates that Jacob understood that he was destined to be punished for not fulfilling that commandment. Because he would be punished in another way for not fulfilling the commandment of honoring father and mother, Jacob could say that he had no reason to be afraid of Esau.

וַתִּגַּשְׁןָ הַשְּׁפָחוֹת הֵנָּה וְיַלְדֵיהֶן וַתִּשְׁתַּחֲוֶיןָ וַתִּגַּשׁ גַּם לֵאָה וִילָדֶיהָ וַיִּשְׁתַּחֲווּ וְאַחַר נִגַּשׁ יוֹסֵף וְרָחֵל וַיִּשְׁתַּחֲווּ

Then the maidservants came near, they and their children, and they bowed down. And Leah also with her children came near, and bowed themselves; and after came Joseph near and Rachel, and they bowed down. (Genesis 33:6-7)

Our master explained that the feminine verb form of "bowed down" (וַתִּשְׁתַּחֲוֶיןָ) is used with the maidservants, because there were two of them (Bilhah and Zilpah), so the corresponding verb had to be plural. The Scripture therefore treated them, not the children, as the principal subjects of the verb and formed the verb accordingly. But it was not possible to use a plural form of the verb with Leah as the subject, so a plural form of the verb required her six children to be included in the subject. The Scripture therefore treated the children as the principal subjects of the verb and used a corresponding masculine verb form. However, since Joseph and Rachel were separate, the Scripture could have used the feminine verb form (וַתִּשְׁתַּחֲוֶיןָ), because the Matriarchs properly take precedence over the children. Nevertheless, the Scripture chose the masculine form (וַתִּשְׁתַּחֲוֶיןָ) because Joseph approached Esau ahead of his mother, because, as Rashi explains, he said "my mother is a beautiful woman; so that the wicked man will not set his fancy on her, I will stand in front of her and prevent him from gazing at her." For that reason the Scripture uses the masculine form to make Joseph the principal subject.

וַיָּבֹא יַעֲקֹב שָׁלֵם עִיר שְׁכֶם וכו' וַיִּחַן אֶת-פְּנֵי הָעִיר

And Jacob came safely to the city of Shechem, . . . and he camped before the city. (Genesis 33:18)

The Sages comment in the Talmud (Shabbat 33) that the word "שלם" (complete) indicates that Jacob established bathhouses for them, he established marketplaces for them, and he established a coinage for them. And the Shalah ha-qadosh wrote that in mentioning these three ways in which Jacob brought about perfection, the Gemara was indicating the three ways in which a person must perfect himself: perfection of the body, i.e, his actions; perfection of his thinking, i.e., his study; and perfection of his property. Jacob our father came to Shehem, having perfected his actions in these three ways, and he taught the people how they could conduct themselves to achieve such perfection.

And it appears to our master that this may be explained based on the writings of the Sages of truth (חכמי האמת) i.e., the Kabbalists, who say that if a righteous person derives benefit from any object, that object is perfected and achieves its desired purpose. Similarly if one makes something or repairs something to fulfill his own desires and that object is subsequently used by a righteous person for his own benefit, the person who made or repaired that object is perfected and has not toiled in vain. We may say, therefore, that the people of Shehem had already made bathhouses, marketplaces, and a coinage for themselves. But by deriving benefit from those things, Jacob did them a kindness, because whatever they had made was perfected on his account by his deriving benefit from those things.