Niel Brandt's Astronomy 485 Lectures

Lecture 01: Photons and Particles, Units, Early X-ray Astronomy History, X-ray Absorption

  • Audio recording (mp3)
  • Overhead 01 (jpg) - X-ray spectrum of the Circinus Galaxy from the ASCA satellite
  • Overhead 02 (jpg) - The Milky Way surveyed with rocket-borne proportional counters
  • Overhead 03 (jpg) - Atmospheric transmission as a function of wavelength
  • Overhead 04 (jpg) - Relative abundances of the elements
  • Lecture 02: X-ray Absorption, Column Density, Absorption Edges, Fluorescent Lines, Auger Effect

  • Audio recording (mp3)
  • Overhead 01 (pdf) - Iron K absorption edge for neutral iron at 7.1 keV
  • Overhead 02 (pdf) - Oxygen absorption edges as seen by ASCA in the Seyfert active galaxy NGC 3783
  • Overhead 03 (jpg) - X-ray absorption by different column densities
  • Overhead 04 (jpg) - The absorption cross section for interstellar gas with typical cosmic abundances
  • Bonus overhead 01 (PDF) - X-ray absorption by different column densities
  • Bonus overhead 02 (PDF) - Transition between optically thin and optically thick for a range of column densities
  • Lecture 03: Radiation from a Hot Plasma, Bremsstrahlung

  • Audio recording (mp3)
  • Overhead 01 (gif) - X-ray radiation from the Virgo Cluster as seen by ROSAT
  • Overhead 02 (pdf) - A 2 keV bremsstrahlung spectrum
  • Overhead 03 (pdf) - A 2 keV blackbody spectrum
  • Lecture 04: Bremsstrahlung, Free-Free Absorption, Radiative Recombination, Dielectronic Recombination, Three-Body Recombination

  • Audio recording (mp3)
  • Overhead 01 (jpg) - Total recombination rate coefficients for recombination to O VI
  • Lecture 05: Collisional Excitation of Line Emission, Power from Radiation Processes Compared, Cyclotron Radiation, Synchrotron Radiation

  • Audio recording (mp3)
  • Overhead 01 (pdf) - Radiation from a 0.4 keV plasma with solar abundance
  • Overhead 02 (pdf) - Radiation from a 2.0 keV plasma with solar abundance
  • Overhead 03 (jpg) - Relative power from bremsstrahlung, lines, radiative recombination
  • Overhead 04 (jpg) - Helical motion of an electron in a magnetic field
  • Overhead 05 (gif) - The Crab Nebula in optical light
  • Overhead 06 (jpg) - The Crab Nebula as seen by the Chandra X-ray Observatory
  • Lecture 06: Synchrotron Radiation, Thomson Scattering, Compton Scattering

  • Audio recording (mp3)
  • Overhead 01 (jpg) - Synchrotron polarization and the headlight effect
  • Overhead 02 (jpg) - Polarization by electron scattering
  • Lecture 07: Compton Scattering, Thomson Depth, Inverse Compton Scattering, S-Z Effect, Eddington Limit

  • Audio recording (mp3)
  • Overhead 01 (jpg) - Broad-band X-ray spectrum of a Seyfert active galaxy
  • Overhead 02 (jpg) - Sunyaev-Zeldovich effect spectral shift
  • Overhead 03 (jpg) - Sunyaev-Zeldovich effect map
  • Overhead 04 (jpg) - Comparison of the Eddington limit with observations
  • Lecture 08: Strong Shocks, Rankine-Huginiot Jump Conditions, Fermi Acceleration, Pair Production

  • Audio recording (mp3)
  • Overhead 01 (jpg) - Tycho's supernova remnant seen in X-rays
  • Overhead 02 (jpg) - Supernova 1987A ring being shocked
  • Overhead 03 (jpg) - X-ray spectral evidence for particle acceleration in the supernova remnant SN1006
  • Overhead 04 (jpg) - The radio galaxy 3C353 - Shocks larger than a galaxy
  • Overhead 05 (jpg) - Photon absorption in lead by photoelectric absorption, Compton scattering, and pair production
  • Overhead 06 (jpg) - Photon-photon cross section for pair production
  • Overhead 07 (jpg) - The density-temperature regime for nonrelativistic plasma
  • Link 01 - Explanation of overhead 02
  • Link 02 - Explanation of overhead 03
  • Link 03 - Explanation of overhead 04
  • Lecture 09: Basic Satellite Properties, Proportional Counters, X-ray Imaging Optics

  • Audio recording (mp3)
  • Overhead 01 (jpg) - Earth's magnetosphere
  • Overhead 02 (jpg) - The South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA)
  • Overhead 03 (gif) - X-ray reflection efficiency for different metals
  • Link 01 - High-energy astrophysics satellites and data
  • Lecture 10: X-ray Imaging Optics, Position Sensitive Proportional Counters, Microchannel Plates, CCDs, Gratings, Microcalorimeters

  • Audio recording (mp3)
  • Overhead 01 (jpg) - X-ray imaging telescope
  • Overhead 02 (jpg) - Chandra Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer (ACIS) photo
  • Overhead 03 (gif) - Chandra ACIS schematic
  • Overhead 04 (jpg) - Supernova remnants observed with proportional counters versus CCDs
  • Overhead 05 (jpg) - Event grades for the CCD X-ray detectors on ASCA
  • Overhead 06 (jpg) - Chandra High-Energy Transmission Grating Spectrometer (HETGS)
  • Overhead 07 (gif) - Spectrum of the Seyfert 1 galaxy NGC 3783 made with the Chandra HETGS
  • Link 01 - Chandra ACIS home page
  • Link 02 - Chandra HETGS home page
  • Lecture 11: Format of X-ray Data, Chisquared Fitting of X-ray Spectra, Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory, Solar System X-ray Sources

  • Audio recording (mp3)
  • Overhead 01 (jpg) - X-ray spectral fitting of NGC 3783 - Data and fitted model
  • Overhead 02 (jpg) - X-ray spectral fitting of NGC 3783 - Input model
  • Overhead 03 (jpg) - X-ray spectral fitting of NGC 3783 - Part of response matrix
  • Overhead 04 (gif) - The Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory with instruments labeled
  • Overhead 05 (gif) - The EGRET instrument on the Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory
  • Link 01 - XSPEC - An X-ray spectral fitting package
  • Link 02 - The Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory
  • Link 03 - The Lay of the Gamma-Ray Astronomer
  • Lecture 12: Solar System X-ray Sources, X-rays from the Solar Corona, Coronal X-rays from Normal Stars

  • Audio recording (mp3)
  • Overhead 01 (pdf) - ROSAT image of X-rays from the Moon
  • Overhead 02 (pdf) - EGRET image of high-energy gamma-rays from the Moon
  • Overhead 03 (pdf) - Chandra images of Jupiter, Mars, Venus
  • Overhead 04 (pdf) - X-rays from Comet Hyakutake
  • Overhead 05 (gif) - Yokoh Solar Observatory X-ray image of a solar flare
  • Overhead 06 (jpg) - Some examples of flares from stars
  • Overhead 07 (jpg) - Relation of stellar X-ray emission to age and rotation
  • Link 01 - Review of X-ray emission from Solar System objects
  • Link 02 - Chandra results on Solar System objects
  • Link 03 - Results from the Yokoh Solar Observatory
  • Lecture 13: Coronal X-rays from Normal Stars, Wind X-rays from Massive Stars, Supernovae, Time Evolution of Supernova Remnants

  • Audio recording (mp3)
  • Overhead 01 (jpg) - Basic properties of RS CVn stars
  • Overhead 02 (jpg) - A model for RS CVn stars
  • Overhead 03 (pdf) - NGC 2359 - A bubble blown by the wind from a massive star
  • Overhead 04 (jpg) - The cosmic cooling curve
  • Link 01 - Surprising recent findings about the X-ray emission from massive stars
  • Link 02 - Some recent results on massive star bubbles and superbubbles
  • Lecture 14: Sedov-Taylor Expansion, Supernova Remnant Examples, Supernova Remnant X-ray Spectra, Supernova Demography, Supernova 1987a, Plerions

  • Audio recording (mp3)
  • Overhead 01 (pdf) - ROSAT X-ray image of Tycho's supernova remnant
  • Overhead 02 (pdf) - ROSAT X-ray image of the Vela supernova remnant with shrapnel
  • Overhead 03 (pdf) - Chandra X-ray image of the Cas A supernova remnant
  • Overhead 04 (jpg) - ASCA X-ray spectrum of the Cas A supernova remnant
  • Overhead 05 (jpg) - Optical image of Supernova 1987a
  • Overhead 06 (jpg) - Optical light curve of Supernova 1987a
  • Overhead 07 (jpg) - Gamma-ray lines from radioactive cobalt in Supernova 1987a
  • Link 01 - The movie Doctor Strangelove
  • Link 02 - ROSAT X-ray images of supernova remnants
  • Link 03 - Chandra and Hubble movies of the Crab Nebula
  • Lecture 15: S process, R process, Sites of Nucleosynthesis, White Dwarf Basics, White Dwarf Surveys, White Dwarf Mass-Radius Relation

  • Audio recording (mp3)
  • Overhead 01 (jpg) - The valley of beta decay stability
  • Overhead 02 (gif) - COMPTEL map of the Galaxy at 1.8 MeV
  • Overhead 03 (pdf) - The white dwarf mass-radius relation
  • Lecture 16: Chandrasekhar Mass, Gravitational Fine Structure Constant, White Dwarf Cooling, Cataclysmic Variables, Common Envelope Evolution, Neutron Star Basics

  • Audio recording (mp3)
  • Overhead 01 (jpg) - The white dwarf mass-radius relation with the Chandrasekhar mass
  • Overhead 02 (jpg) - Cooling white dwarfs
  • Overhead 03 (jpg) - Accretion-disk geometry for a binary system
  • Overhead 04 (jpg) - Emission lines from a dwarf nova disk
  • Overhead 05 (jpg) - Cataclysmic variable disk variability
  • Overhead 06 (jpg) - Polars and intermediate polars
  • Lecture 17: Beta-Decay Blocking, Neutronization, Neutron Star Maximum Mass, NS Internal Structure, NS Cooling, NS Kicks, NS Magnetic Fields, Pulsar Basics

  • Audio recording (mp3)
  • Overhead 01 (jpg) - Neutron star structure
  • Overhead 02 (jpg) - Neutron star cooling
  • Overhead 03 (jpg) - The high space velocities of young pulsars
  • Overhead 04 (jpg) - Pulsar period distribution and Vela Pulsar glitch
  • Link 01 - Virtual trips to neutron stars and black holes
  • Link 02 - An update on neutron star cooling
  • Link 03 - An update on neutron star kicks
  • Link 04 - ATNF pulsar catalog
  • Lecture 18: Pulsar Braking Index, Magnetic Dipole Model, Pulsar Ages, Pulsar Magnetic Field Strengths, Pulsar Glitches, Pulsar Masses, The "Lack" of Pulsars in Supernova Remnants, Pulsars in Binaries

  • Audio recording (mp3)
  • Overhead 01 (jpg) - The pulsar period vs. period derivative diagram
  • Overhead 02 (jpg) - The pulsar period vs. surface magnetic field diagram
  • Overhead 03 (jpg) - Neutron star masses from pulsar observations
  • Overhead 04 (jpg) - Neutron star masses from X-ray binaries and radio pulsars
  • Link 01 - Some recent observations of pulsar glitches
  • Link 02 - Masses of radio pulsars
  • Link 03 - Some evidence for heavy neutron stars
  • Link 04 - Detailed discussion of associations between pulsars and supernova remnants
  • Link 05 - Princeton pulsar group
  • Lecture 19: The Binary Pulsar, Gravitational Wave Radiation, High-Mass X-ray Binaries, Bondi-Hoyle Accretion, X-ray Pulsars, Low-Mass X-ray Binaries, X-ray Bursts, Dippers and Accretion Disk Corona Sources, Quasi-Periodic Oscillations

  • Audio recording (mp3)
  • Overhead 01 (jpg) - The binary pulsar - basic system properties
  • Overhead 02 (jpg) - Gravitational wave radiation from the binary pulsar
  • Overhead 03 (jpg) - LMXBs and HMXBs
  • Overhead 04 (jpg) - X-ray pulsar geometry and pulses
  • Overhead 05 (jpg) - Be X-ray binaries
  • Overhead 06 (jpg) - Example of an X-ray burst
  • Overhead 07 (jpg) - "Dipper" X-ray binaries
  • Overhead 08 (jpg) - Quasi-periodic oscillations from the X-ray binary Circinus X-1
  • Link 01 - Recent study of the binary pulsar
  • Link 02 - Niel's favorite LMXB
  • Lecture 20: X-ray Binaries in Globular Clusters, Tidal Capture, Black Hole Binaries, Cygnus X-1, Black Hole X-ray Novae, V404 Cyg, Ellipsoidal Light Curve Variations, The "Pit" in the Potential

  • Audio recording (mp3)
  • Overhead 01 (jpg) - The black widow pulsar - schematic
  • Overhead 02 (jpg) - Eclipse by the companion of the black widow pulsar
  • Overhead 03 (jpg) - Cygnus X-1 rapid X-ray variability
  • Overhead 04 (jpg) - An outburst of the black hole X-ray nova A0620-00
  • Overhead 05 (jpg) - Stellar mass black hole binaries
  • Overhead 06 (jpg) - Ellipsoidal light curve variations
  • Overhead 07 (jpg) - Mass estimates for neutron stars and black holes compared
  • Overhead 08 (jpg) - Brief review of the effective potential
  • Link 01 - The identification of Cygnus X-1
  • Link 02 - A review of observations of black holes in our Galaxy
  • Lecture 21: The "Pit" in the Potential, Observed Black Hole X-ray Spectra, Simple Black Hole Accretion, Relativistic Disk Effects, Accretion Disk Coronae, Advection Dominated Accretion, Trapping Flows

  • Audio recording (mp3)
  • Overhead 01 (jpg) - The "pit" in the potential
  • Overhead 02 (jpg) - X-ray spectra of three Galactic black holes
  • Overhead 03 (jpg) - Full accretion disk spectrum
  • Overhead 04 (jpg) - Calculated image of a relativistic disk
  • Overhead 05 (jpg) - Comparison of two types of accretion flows onto a black hole
  • Lecture 22: Kerr Black Holes, Microquasars in the Galaxy, SS 433, GRS 1915+105, Apparent Superluminal Motion, The Supermassive Black Hole at the Galactic Center

  • Audio recording (mp3)
  • Overhead 01 (gif) - Very Large Array (VLA) images of ejections from GRS 1915+105
  • Overhead 02 (jpg) - The quasar-microquasar analogy
  • Overhead 03 (jpg) - X-ray spectrum of SS433 from the ASCA satellite
  • Overhead 04 (jpg) - Extreme X-ray variability of GRS 1915+105: Sputters and a major lull
  • Overhead 05 (jpg) - Extreme X-ray variability of GRS 1915+105: Brief flares in prolonged lulls
  • Overhead 06 (jpg) - Radio, infrared, and X-ray light curves of GRS 1915+105
  • Overhead 07 (gif) - Stellar proper motions in the Galactic Center
  • Overhead 08 (jpg) - Velocity dispersion vs. projected distance for stars near the Galactic Center
  • Link 01 - Amazing X-ray variability of the microquasar GRS 1915+105
  • Link 02 - A brief technical review of microquasars
  • Link 03 - High-resolution X-ray grating spectroscopy of SS 433 with Chandra
  • Link 04 - Stellar motions near the supermassive black hole at the Galactic Center
  • Link 05 - Rapid X-ray flares from the supermassive black hole at the Galactic Center
  • Lecture 23: The Supermassive Black Hole at the Galactic Center, X-rays from Spiral Galaxies, "Super-Eddington" Sources, Starbursts and Superwinds, Observational Limits to X-ray Galaxy Studies

  • Audio recording (mp3)
  • Overhead 01 (jpg) - Wide-field radio image of the Galactic Center
  • Overhead 02 (jpg) - Chandra ACIS image of Sgr A*
  • Overhead 03 (jpg) - Broad-band spectral energy distribution of Sgr A*
  • Overhead 04 (jpg) - ROSAT image of X-ray sources in M31
  • Overhead 05 (pdf) - Superwind from the starburst galaxy NGC 253
  • Overhead 06 (jpg) - Optical image of the starburst galaxy M82
  • Overhead 07 (jpg) - Chandra image of the starburst galaxy M82
  • Overhead 08 (jpg) - Image of M82 in the light of the hydrogen-alpha transition
  • Lecture 24: X-rays from Elliptical Galaxies, Growth and Fueling of Supermassive Black Holes, Jets and Lobes, Seyfert Galaxies and Radio-Quiet Quasars, AGN X-ray Variability, AGN X-ray Spectra

  • Audio recording (mp3)
  • Overhead 01 (jpg) - X-ray binaries and hot gas in the elliptical galaxy NGC 4697
  • Overhead 02 (gif) - X-ray emitting hot gas in the elliptical galaxy M49
  • Overhead 03 (gif) - Collimated radio jet from M87 seen on a range of size scales
  • Overhead 04 (gif) - Collimated radio jet from NGC 6251 seen on a range of size scales
  • Overhead 05 (gif) - The "bent-double" radio galaxy NGC 1265
  • Overhead 06 (jpg) - Apparent superluminal motion of a radio "blob" fired from the quasar 3C 273
  • Overhead 07 (jpg) - Optical image of the jet from M87 showing clear Doppler favoritism
  • Overhead 08 (jpg) - Combined optical and Chandra image showing the jet from Centaurus A
  • Overhead 09 (jpg) - Chandra image of the jet from the quasar 3C 273
  • Overhead 10 (jpg) - Broad-band spectral energy distributions of Seyfert galaxies and blazars
  • Overhead 11 (jpg) - Optical-to-ultraviolet spectrum of a Seyfert galaxy
  • Overhead 12 (jpg) - Rapid X-ray variability from Seyfert galaxies
  • Overhead 13 (jpg) - Characteristic X-ray continuum components seen from a Seyfert galaxy
  • Link 01 - Images of active galactic nuclei
  • Link 02 - Radio images of radio galaxies and quasars
  • Link 03 - Radio images of M87
  • Link 04 - X-ray emission from radio jets
  • Lecture 25: AGN X-ray Continuum Components, AGN X-ray Spectral Features, Compton Reflection, Warm Absorbers, X-rays and the Unified AGN Model, Hot Intracluster Gas, Coma and Virgo Clusters

  • Audio recording (mp3)
  • Overhead 01 (pdf) - AGN X-ray spectral features seen pre-gratings and post-gratings
  • Overhead 02 (pdf) - AGN X-ray spectral features from active galaxy outflows
  • Overhead 03 (jpg) - Ionized absorption and a broad iron K line
  • Overhead 04 (gif) - X-ray spectrum of the Seyfert 2 galaxy NGC 4945
  • Overhead 05 (jpg) - XMM-Newton image of the Coma cluster
  • Overhead 06 (jpg) - Optical image of the Coma cluster
  • Overhead 07 (jpg) - ROSAT image of the Virgo cluster
  • Overhead 08 (jpg) - Optical image of the Virgo cluster
  • Link 01 - Review of ionized absorbers in active galaxies
  • Link 02 - Review of iron K lines made close to black holes
  • Link 03 - ROSAT images of clusters of galaxies
  • Link 04 - Chandra images of clusters of galaxies
  • Lecture 26: Metals in Hot Intracluster Gas, The Riddle of Cooling Flows, The Cosmic X-ray Background, Deep X-ray Surveys, Active Galaxy Evolution, Some Planned Future Missions

  • Audio recording (mp3)
  • Overhead 01 (jpg) - X-ray spectra of the Perseus and A1795 clusters
  • Overhead 02 (jpg) - X-ray spatial profiles of the A478 and Coma clusters
  • Overhead 03 (jpg) - Broad-band spectrum of the cosmic X-ray background
  • Overhead 04 (pdf) - Basic capabilities of Chandra and XMM-Newton for X-ray surveys
  • Overhead 05 (pdf) - Deep X-ray surveys with Chandra and XMM-Newton
  • Overhead 06 (pdf) - Nature of the X-ray sources found in deep X-ray surveys
  • Overhead 07 (pdf) - The Hubble Deep Field-North as seen by Chandra
  • Overhead 08 (pdf) - Evolution of active galaxy luminosity functions in the optical and X-ray
  • Overhead 09 (gif) - Some future prospects for X-ray surveys
  • Link 01 - Some recent results on cooling flows
  • Link 02 - Some further overheads on results from extragalactic X-ray surveys
  • Niel Brandt
    (wnbrandt @ gmail.com)

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