Caller's Personalized System of Instruction
In 1960s, Keller built a personal system of instruction seeking to promote mastery of a predetermined set of objects for each learner. Burton, Moore and Magliaro (1996) described PSI (Personalized System of Instruction) as an interlocking system of instruction, which consists of sequentially, progressive tasks. The major components in the system include pre-specified objectives and self-paced modules.
In Keller's (1968) paper, he identified five essential features of a personalized course:
Based on the description of personalized system of instruction by Educational Technologies at Virginia Tech, listed the steps for developing the personalized system of instruction as follows:
Research on PSI has proved that PSI can be extremely effective in producing significant improvement in students achievement (Burton, Moore and Maliaro, 1996). More resources about PSI can be found on the PSI homepage developed by Robert Allan and Howard Gullup.
Burton, J. K., Moore, D. M., & Magliaro, S. G. (1996). Behaviorism and instructional technology. In D. H. Jonassen (Ed.), Handbook of Research for Educational Communications and Technology (pp. 46-73). New York: Macmillan.
Keller, F. S. (1968). Goodbye teacher
Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis